Bo 5752: G-dliness Revealed Without Histalkus

Bo 5752: G-dliness Revealed Without Histalkus

Our parsha begins with Hashem’s instruction to Moshe Rabbeinu “Come to Pharaoh”.  The question is asked: why “come to Pharaoh” and not “go to Pharaoh” (as stated in other verses)?  Furthermore, being that the Torah is eternal, what is the relevance of going to Pharaoh, King of Egypt, when we are standing at the end of golus — long after Egypt was rendered helpless and nothing remains of Pharaoh — at a time when the birurim of the klipah of Pharaoh are finished (as mentioned many times)?

CONFRONTING PHARAOH

The commentaries explain that Moshe Rabbeinu was afraid to go to the inner chambers of Pharaoh, and therefore Hashem said “Come [with Me] to Pharaoh” to ease Moshe’s fear of confronting Pharaoh alone.

However, our question becomes stronger when we learn, based on the Zohar, that the evil Pharaoh that we encountered in Egypt has his source in the “Pharaoh of kedusha (holiness)”, which refers to the revelation of G-dliness.  Why was Moshe afraid to go to the Pharoah of holiness, so much so that he needed a direct command from Hashem to “come” together with Hashem?! Continue reading

Erev Shabbos: Time of Techiyas Hameisim

Erev Shabbos: Time of Techiyas Hameisim

In addition to the radical chiddushim in the plain understanding of the second sicha of Parshas Va’era 5752, one can also find a number of hints and suggestions that give even deeper insight into the ground-shaking ideas the Rebbe is revealing.

In the explanation as to how the “good sign” of one who dies on Erev Shabbos applies to our era (the last quarter of the 6th millennium, “Erev Shabbos” of the entire creation), the Rebbe refers to the concept of “nesira” (“cutting”). This “nesira” describes what happened to Adam Harishon on the day of his creation: Hashem put him to sleep in order to separate Chava. From being a “back to back” entity they gained the ability to be “face to face”, and to bring into existence limitless future generations. While his sleep was one-sixtieth of death, it was completely a positive matter: in order to bring about an immeasurable improvement, specifically the ability to give birth to all future generations.

The Rebbe references the writings of the Arizal as a source for the Kabbalistic explanation of this concept of Nesira. In the writings of the Arizal (Shaar Hapsukim, p.17) one finds that the Arizal writes that “this matter is that the moichin (intellect) which is in the head of Z”A (the six sefiros) go out from it via this sleeping, and then they are given to the female (Malchus).” This brings about that Malchus grows from a point to her full development. Reading this, especially in the original language, seems to hint at the state of affairs after the events of 27 Adar and 3 Tammuz, when the Rebbe (the head — “Rosh Bnei Yisroel”) is not seen, and Malchus (the Jewish souls) receive and develop their potential via the intellectual power bestowed upon them by the head (“now I give it over to you, do all that you can to bring Moshiach in actuality” [sicha of 28 Nissan 5751]).

The Rebbe also brings (footnote 40) from “Kuntres Sfas Emes (at the end of Emes L’Yaakov)” that there is a “nesira” every Rosh Hashana which is the most difficult and requires the sounding of the shofar and a great awakening. There was also a “nesira” at the time of Purim, the 70 years of golus Bavel, and “the ‘nesira’ which will be in the future in the time when Moshiach Tzidkeinu will come…these are the birth pangs of Moshiach”. A hint that in our times there will also be a “nesira”. Note that in the first sicha (footnote 66) the Rebbe mentions that regarding Yehuda the verse states “she ceased to give birth” hinting at the future redemption regarding which it says ‘shir chadash’ in the masculine, “because while the female suffers birth pangs, the males do not give birth.” Implying that the suffering associated with birth ceases when we are in a “masculine” mode of Geuloh (as described in Torah Ohr, parshas Tazria), referring to the effort from below, fitting the avoidah of the time of Nesira and the Rebbe’s statements numerous times that there is no need to undergo more birth pangs of Moshiach.

Having established that our era is itself the “Erev Shabbos” of the entire creation, the Rebbe now explains the significance: In footnote 63 the Rebbe brings a reference that the time of Techiyas Hameisim is Erev Shabbos (the time for “shaking off the dust”, quoting the Zohar I, 127b). This is connected with Rebbi Yehuda Hanosi, who himself was an example of Techiyas Hameisim, returning to make kiddush for his family after his passing. Tzaddikim have Techiyas Hameisim at the start of Yemos Hamoshiach, “40 years before the era of Techiyas Hameisim for all of bnei Yisroel” (Zohar I, 140a). Then the Rebbe goes on to say (not for the first time) that our generation will experience eternal life (which is Techiyas Hameisim, as explained elsewhere) without the interruption of death.

We can, b’derech efesher, understand from this that the beginning of Yemos Hamoshiach was back in 5711 (the beginning of the Rebbe’s leadership), and all 40 plus years of the Rebbe’s leadership leading up to 5752 were in fact Yemos Hamoshiach! After 40 years (which the Rebbe emphasized many times as the beginning of a new epoch of having “eyes to see, a heart to know, etc;” and to be able to fully comprehend the teachings of one’s Rebbe) we have entered the period of “Techiyas Hameisim for all of bnei Yisroel.” Thus, the Rebbe states that when “the time of death is erev Shabbos his death is in a way that it is emphasized in a revealed way (only) the good…mainly through Techiyas Hameisim in proximity to the time of burial.”

We are already in the time of “erev Shabbos” of Creation; the Rebbe, after 40 years of leadership, is telling us that we will all go to eternal life (Techiyas Hameisim) without interruption, “in proximity to the time of burial.” This unique expression of “Techiyas Hameisim in proximity to the time of burial” should grab our attention. It reads as a description of fact, not as an expression of possibility. Not “if the Geuloh will come now, then this individual will be among the first to rise” (which might not come to pass if the Geuloh didn’t come), but rather: this is what is happening now, the “erev Shabbos” in proximity to the burial! It is not a Techiyas Hameisim that is visible to our physical eyes, but it is happening!

[For the Torah basis for saying this, that what looks to us as a person passing away is actually the “shaking off the dust” of klipa, see the Kuntres “The Generation that Doesn’t Die“.]

The Rebbe wrote to R’ Michoel Seligson regarding the Rebbe’s small sefer Hayom Yom, “הפוך בה והפוך בה כי כולה בה” — turn it over and over because it contains everything; how much more so the lengthy sichos of the 5751-5752, the more one “turns them over” the more he reveals the insights of the Geuloh found in the Torah of Moshiach!

Va’era 5752: The Rectification of Death

Va’era 5752: The Rectification of Death

In the second sicha printed for parshas Va’era 5752, the Rebbe elaborates on the statement of the sages that “one who dies on Erev Shabbos, it is a good sign for him”.

The Gemara describes that when R’ Yehuda haNosi took ill, R’ Chiya visited him and found him crying.  He asked him why he was crying (assuming that he was afraid of death).  R’ Chiya proceeded to give him a list of signs that portend well for the fate of a person after death (and their opposite): Dying amidst laughter is a good sign, while crying is a not good; one who dies on Erev Shabbos is a good sign, after Shabbos is not good.  (And several others.)

R’ Yehuda haNosi responded that he was crying (not from a fear of his fate after death, but rather) because of the Torah and Mitzvos he would no longer be able to perform.  Seemingly, the list of good signs brought by R’ Chiya (several of which applied to R’ Yehuda haNosi and were meant to comfort him), do not help the reason given by R’ Yehuda for his crying, because seemingly being unable to perform Torah and Mitzvos after ones passing is not affected by the good signs of how a person passes away.  (The Rebbe brings a proof for this from the story in the Gemara about Dovid haMelech, who asked to pass away on Erev Shabbos (because then one is not subject to “chibut hakever“), and Hashem refused him, telling him that even one day of his Torah learning was more dear to Him.)

Furthermore, the Rebbe asks on this whole discussion a fundamental question:

“How is it possible to truthfully say (in Toras Emes, the Torah of truth) that “one who dies on Erev Shabbos it is a good sign for him” — a “good sign” in relation to the occurrence of death, the opposite of life, the ultimate opposite of good according to Torah?!”  

Sincethe Torah defines “good” as fulfilling the will of Hashem through the performance of Torah and Mitzvos as a soul in a body, then death is the opposite of Good, since it is the the departure of the soul from the body and the performance of Torah and Mitzvos ceases (thus it was the reason for R’ Yehuda haNosi’s crying).

In answer the Rebbe explains that:

The “good sign” of “one who dies on Erev Shabbos” indicates and emphasizes the rectification of the undesirable aspect in the general inyan of death, and automatically the reason for R’ Yehuda haNossi’s crying over the interruption of Torah and Mitzvos is nullified (and rectified), as we will explain.

The Rebbe proceeds to explain that already on the very first Erev Shabbos, when Adam Harishon was created, there was already something similar to death that took place, as the verse states “Hashem brought a drowsiness upon the Man and caused him to sleep”.  Sleep is called “one-sixtieth of death” by our sages, for when a person sleeps his life force (chayus) is not visible (through movement, expressing ideas, etc.).  This is seemingly an undesirable state, but in fact it is a sign that there will be an increase in the individual’s chayus (life-force) when he wakes up, an incomparable increase.  In the case of Adam Harishon this resulted in the creation of his wife, Chava, after which they could bring unlimited generations into being — an incomparable increase of chayus compared to before he slept, from the limited to the unlimited.

This model also holds in the bigger picture of the 6,000 years of this world which correspond to the days of Creation (the 7th millennium corresponding to the 7th day, Shabbos).  The 6th millennium (which we are in presently) corresponds to “Erev Shabbos”, the end of the time of golus, and there is this inyan of sleeping through which is brought about a union on a higher level (according to Kabbalah this is the union of Z”A and Malchus, the Holy One, blessed be He, and Knesses Yisroel), corresponding to the sleep of Adam Harishon that resulted in an infinitely higher state of being.

Thus, one who “dies on Erev Shabbos” also refers to one who passes away in our time, the eve of the 7th millennium; it is like the sleep we mentioned above.  So it turns out that this death (on “Erev Shabbos” at the end of golus) is for the sake of an increase and renewal of life.  This has two explanations:

a) Our sages say “Yaakov Avinu did not die…just as his descendants are alive, so, too, he is alive”, that through the continuation of the life of his descendants (true life, in accordance with Torah) this brings about that “also he is alive”.  And more than this, that this inyan of “he is alive” in its true sense, meaning eternal existence, is revealed by the continuation and eternality of “his descendants are alive” after his passing [in other words, Yaakov’s eternal life is revealed specifically after he passes away (or, at least, seemed to pass away) by the fact that his descendants continue to live the true life of Torah]that specifically then it can be seen in a revealed way the eternality (the truth) of “he is alive”.  So it turns out that through death comes about an increase and renewal of life — the revelation of the eternality and truth of life.

b) And this is the main thing: that the concealment (histalkus) of the chayus that occurs at death is for the sake of an increase and renewal of chayus as a soul in a body — at the resurrection of the dead, for then there will be life of a soul in a body in eternal life.

This enables us to answer the question of how does telling R’ Yehuda haNosi that “one who dies on Erev Shabbos it is a good sign for him”: since on Erev Shabbos it is emphasized that the concealment (histalkus) of the chayus is for the sake of an increase and renewal of the chayus.  Thus, it turns out that

…the time of death coming on Erev Shabbos is in a way that emphasizes in a revealed way the good aspect alone, the increase and renewal of chayus, both through the increase of the eternality and the truth of the life through the fact that “his descendants are alive”, and also and mainly through the Resurrection of the dead right after the time of burial.

Thus, it turns out, that this “good sign” indicates and emphasizes the rectification of the undesirable aspect in death, and automatically the reason that Rebi [Yehuda haNosi] was crying over the nullification of Torah and Mitzvos is rectified as well, because when Tzaddikim arise at the Resurrection of the dead (at the beginning of Yemos Hamoshiach, forty years before the epoch of the Resurrection of the dead of all Bnei Yisroel) there is a continuation of the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvos (and to the contrary: in a higher degree of perfection — “as mitzvos of Your will”, כמצות רצונך)

In other words, death on Erev Shabbos is a good sign also as regards the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvos, for following on the heels of this death is the Resurrection of the dead which enables the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvos as a soul in a body in a perfected and unlimited way, immeasurably greater than the way it was before the “death on Erev Shabbos”!

The Rebbe then takes this even further: that the main intention of this “good sign” is not literal death, chas v’sholom, but rather the avodah of the Yid in his lifetime as a soul in a body.  This is especially after it has already occurred literally with unique individuals, and through them it is sufficient to fulfill the obligation of the rest of Bnei Yisroel (so that the rest of us do not need to literally pass away in order to attain the higher level described above). Consequently, by the rest of Bnei Yisroel there will be only the spiritual avodah of “death” (meaning self-nullification, bittul), with a seamless continuation to eternal life (without any interruption in between) in the time to come.

Death on Erev Shabbos (the 6th millennium, our times) is only a concealment as a preparation for a revelation of a higher level of life — eternal life of the soul in the body, in the ultimate state of perfection!

Shemos 5752: To Bring to the Days of Moshiach

Shemos 5752: To Bring to the Days of Moshiach

This parsha, following the passing of Yaakov, Yosef, and the brothers, is the beginning of a new era in the history of Bnei Yisroel — the beginning of the Egyptian exile.  “These are the names of Bnei Yisroel who came to Egypt” — the first exile.

The midrash states that the reason for the subsequent redemption from Egypt was “due to the fact that [Bnei Yisroel] did not change their names…they went down as Reuvain and Shimon and they came up as Reuvain and Shimon.”  This is a comment on the name (and initial verse) of our parsha: Shemos (meaning, “names”), which refers to the beginning of the exile in Egypt, as mentioned.

The Rebbe derives from this that the verse “these are the names of Bnei Yisroel who came to Egypt” is also emphasizing the merit for which they were ultimately redeemed from Egypt (“that they didn’t change their names”).  In other words — it is referring both to the beginning of the golus and also to the future Geuloh from that golus.

The whole idea of “coming to Egypt” is in truth the “Geuloh of Yisroel”.  The descent which occurs in the meantime [until the Geuloh comes] is on the superficial level (בחיצוניות), but on a deeper level (בפנימיות), the descent itself is (not only for the sake that through it will come the ascent that occurs through the redemption from Egypt, but more than that–) a part of the ascent and the Geuloh itself, until we reach the ascent of the true and complete Geuloh…the future Geuloh.

In other words, not only is there a “descent for the sake of an ascent”, which makes the descent worthwhile in the end; here the Rebbe is saying something much greater: the descent itself is already part of the ultimate ascent!

At this point, the Rebbe turns to explain the familiar statement: Continue reading

Chof Zayin Adar: Revealing the Power of Concealment

The day 27 Adar (כ”ז אדר ראשון) is not just a date in Lubavitch — it has become a title for the dramatic day that was the beginning of a new reality for Chassidim.  This is the day that the Rebbe had what the doctors call a stroke, and since then we have not heard from the Rebbe.  Gimmel Tammuz is another step, but the “silence” began on this day, Chof Zayin Adar.

The number 27 in Loshon Hakodesh is also the word “זך”, which means refined and purified.  In fact, the Rebbe connects this with the 27th day of the month, in a sicha of Parshas Pekudei 5750 (2 years to the day before the stroke).  Here the Rebbe explains that the 27th of the month possesses the special quality of:

…scouring and clarification and purification, as is written about the time of the Geuloh “many will be clarified and whitened and purified” (Daniel 12:10).  The ultimate scouring and purification is by revealing the intent in the Tzimtzum [contraction of G-dly revelation] and concealment of the Divine name Elokim itself.

This will be understood in light of what the Rebbe explained in the earlier parts of this sicha.  To summarize:

According to Torah, there are 7 names of Hashem that one is forbidden to erase due to their Holiness.  Of them, we primarily relate to two names: YKVK and Elokim, which represent the revelation of G-dliness (the name YKVK) and the concealment of that revelation (the name Elokim).  The name Elokim is the contraction and concealment of G-dly light — in other words: darkness.  We find a verse in Tehillim “the sun and its shield, YKVK Elokim”, explained to mean that Elokim (concealment) is like a shield or a filter that reduces the G-dly revelation of the name YKVK so that the worlds are not nullified out of existence.  According to this, the name Elokim, the contraction and concealment of G-dly light (the darkness), is for the sake of being able to reveal G-dliness within the limited ability of the worlds to receive.  Like smoked glass diminishes the light of the sun but this itself allows a person to be able to gaze at the sun without being blinded.  A concealment which has the intent of actually revealing that which is being concealed.

But, explains the Rebbe, there is another dimension: the quality of Tzimtzum (contraction) in and of itself — that contraction and concealment show the completeness of the unlimited Holy One, blessed be He, that He is truly unlimited: He is so “unlimited” that he can also limit Himself!  He possesses not only the power of unlimited revelation, but also the power of concealment and limitation.  Explains the Rebbe, this derives from the level of Hashem’s Essence עצמותו where the power of infinite revelation can co-exist with His power of limitation and concealment (regardless of the fact that they are opposites).  (See the maamor השם נפשנו בחיים printed for Gimmel Tammuz 5749, where it states that the inyan of Tzimtzum for its own sake will only be revealed in the Time to Come.)  Thus, Geuloh is:

…not only the nullification of the withdrawal and concealment (העלם והסתר) of the world by revealing that the intent of the contraction and concealment is for the sake of revelation.  Rather, more than this: that we reveal the intent of the withdrawal and concealment itself…not only do we nullify the inyan of golus by revealing that the concealment [of the name Elokim] is for the sake of revelation, but more than this: that the golus itself is clarified and is transformed to Geuloh, since we reveal the intent of the Tzimtzum itself, the power of concealment (which is above revelation).

These are very deep concepts, we are not attempting to do them justice in this brief article.  But we will try to bring them down to simpler words, which will help us relate to the event of Chof Zayin Adar over 27 years ago (and its continuation to the present time): This second aspect of the Divine name Elokim (the name of darkness and concealment) is it’s inherent value, not as it brings about or leads to something else.  It is not only that the darkness as a vehicle for revealing the light, and in such a case we must nullify the darkness in order to reach a greater light.  Rather, it is the lofty intent within the darkness itself — the power of Hashem’s Essence to be limited.  What does that mean?  That we identify and recognize Hashem in the darkness just as we do through His revelations!  The darkness remains darkness, but it ceases to darken because we recognize that the darkness itself is part of Hashem no less than light and revelation.  “The darkness is as light” (כחשיכה כאורה).  This is even higher than crying out over the darkness (as the Rebbe explains in the maamor (בלילה ההוא, מלוקט ד) that was edited and released for publication on Purim, 5750, two weeks earlier than this sicha).

In practical terms, we could say as follows:

Following the stroke that occurred Chof Zayin Adar, 5752, the Chassidim were worried, davening and saying Tehilim for the Rebbe’s health.  There was a great and sudden darkness over Lubavitch.  No farbrengens with the Rebbe, no Sunday dollars.  Gimmel Tammuz was another step into darkness and concealment.  Yet, in the years since then, when the concealment is seemingly greater than before, there has been revealed an even deeper connection to the Rebbe.  Previously, the connection expressed itself through the way the Rebbe revealed himself.  Then there was a concealment, and there was a response of crying out over the concealment.  But since then, the hiskashrus has evolved and come to approach the second level the Rebbe mentions: where the concealment itself does not conceal.

What does this mean in practical terms?

That the fact that we do not see or hear the Rebbe for so many years (and so we cry out to Hashem “ad mosai?!”) nonetheless does not obscure our ability to recognize the Rebbe’s presence and influence.  This comes from Atzmus, meaning our hiskashrus today is coming from Etzem Hanefesh, where the concealment and the darkness themselves are converted to Geuloh — that the present situation comes to show the power of concealment, which by the Rebbe means that we come to recognize that he is just as effective in his role of Nosi Hador and Moshiach Tzidkeinu when we don’t see as when we do see, when we don’t hear as when we do hear.  So many years have passed and yet not only is the hiskashrus of Chassidim still strong, but each year there are more and more mekushorim, many of whom were not even born before Chof-Zayin Adar!  “The darkness is as light” (כחשיכה כאורה), the power of concealment which is above revelation.

Nothing was lost on Chof-Zayin Adar.  On the contrary: we set out on a path of establishing a greater level of connection with the Rebbe, a path upon which we proceed to this very day.  We do not need to cry out over the darkness, but rather we must “remind” Hashem that just as the power of concealment has an intent of its own, so does the power of revelation!  We can now, after Chof Zayin Adar, appreciate the power of concealment (which doesn’t actually conceal, but reveals a deeper level), and therefore we beseech Hashem that we should also have complete revelation: the true and complete Geuloh with the Rebbe Melech Hamoshiach, and we will gaze upon the beauty of our King!

Yechi Adoneinu Moreinu v’Rabbeinu Melech HaMoshiach L’olam Vo’ed!

Pekudei 5752: The Missing Parsha

The Dvar Malchus begins with Vayikra 5751, but where does it end?  The Parshas Vayakhel sicha is unfinished, and parshas Pekudei is missing (actually, “missing” is one of the definitions of the word*, as in יפקד מושבך).  What is the message?

Firstly, we could take note that the start of our Dvar Malchus cycle is parshas Vayikra.  This hints at the division of the Chasidishe Parsha, Torah Ohr and Likkutei Torah — the former covering Bereishis to Vayakhel, the latter Vayikra through the end.  In an odd turn of hashgacha protis, parshas Pekudei is absent from Torah Ohr (which covers all of Shemos) and appears in the other volume.

But more to the point, the Rebbe generally explains these two parshiyos (Vayakhel and Pekudei, which in many years are read together) as reflecting two distinct angles:

  • Vayakhel means “gathering” and speaks of unity and generality, where the individual elements are subdued in the whole.
  • Pekudei implies making an accounting of the individual elements, and in fact it is here that we learn the details: this many talents of silver, that many hooks and boards, etc.

The fact that our Dvar Malchus has Vayakhel but lacks Pekudei (when looked at in light of the content of all the sichas) implies that from the collective side of things, everything is in a state of Geulah: the aspect of Above to below, the “Nosi is everything” (הנשיא הוא הכל) which nullifies all the elements to the greater whole. You can find this expressed many times in these sichos.

What remains to be completed is the aspect of Pekudei: the completion and perfection of the parts, not as they are nullified to the greater whole but their own intrinsic importance as unique elements. Meaning our avodah, individually.  In the Rebbe’s words: “do all that you can” — you, personally and as an individual!  (Of course, merging the individual effort with the unity of Vayakhel, which is the reason that most years the two parshiyos are read together.)

What is needed now is for each one of us to reveal his spark of Moshiach through our own efforts, and not to expect someone else, not even Melech HaMoshiach, to do it for us. Avodah b’koach atzmo“, to reveal individually what has already been accomplished collectively. To bring — each one of us — Moshiach in actuality!

(Not only will this complete the aspect of “Pekudei”, but it brings about the completion and perfection of “Vayak’hel”, because the “incomplete” Sicha of Vayak’hel hints that even the aspect of “Above to below” remains incomplete as long as the “Pekudei” is lacking.  Completing the task of the mekabel (from below) adds to the perfection of the mashpia (Above).)

 

* Another meaning of Pekudei is connected with childbearing and the marital union, as in “Hashem remembered Sarah” (to bless her with a child) (ה’ פקד את שרה), and “a man must be intimate with his wife [before seeing out on a lengthy journey]” (יפקוד את אשתו).  In fact, this second meaning is mentioned in the Alter Rebbe’s drush on this parsha in Likkutei Torah, strengthening the connection between the parsha and these words.  This fits as a hint that although Parshas Pekudei is “missing”, and it might seem to some that the “husband” has gone on a journey leaving his wife alone — even so he must “be intimate with his wife” before departing (these Sichos of Dvar Malchus)  and even to the point of making her “pregnant” through this intimacy: pregnant with the true an complete Geuloh.

Vayakhel 5752: Ingathering of the Exiles Has Begun

The sicha that was said on Parshas Vayakhel, 5752 was never properly edited, due to the event of the following Monday,  27 Adar.  (On 27 Adar the Rebbe had a stroke while visiting the Ohel of his father-in-law, the Previous Rebbe).  Nevertheless, the brief overview (“rashei dvorim“) that was written up and presented to the Rebbe after Shabbos was (uncharacteristically) marked up by the Rebbe.  Thus, it passed before the Rebbe, and what needed correction was corrected.

In this overview of the sicha, it says:

…we see in recent years how there has been a “vayakhel” (gathering) in the simple meaning of the word — the ingathering of the exiles (“kibbutz goliyos”) of bnei Yisroel from the entire world, who are going up to Eretz Hakodesh.  This aliyah is incomparable to those that once were in the previous generations.  [To point out that Rabboseinu Nessienu were not in the Holy Land, not even for a visit, and even the trip taken by the Friedicker Rebbe was because he was unable to visit the resting places of his predecessors in Rostov, Lubavitch, and the like].

For all the prior years of the Rebbe’s leadership, the Rebbe was adamant in saying that Jews going to Israel is not the ingathering of the exiles (“kibbutz goliyos”), because the ingathering of the exiles must be done by Moshiach.  But here the Rebbe in fact calls it “kibbutz Goliyos”!?

We can say that what has changed is that now the aliyah — the Jews who were leaving the former Soviet Union, in particular — was coming about through Moshiach himself, and thus it does fulfill the requirement of Kibbutz Goliyos!

It should be noted that this expression, “Kibbutz Goliyos”, is of monumental significance.  One of the requirements of Moshiach to be identified as “certainly Moshiach” is that he gathers in the exiles.  As the Rambam says: “if he builds the Mikdash in its place and ingathers the exiles we know with certainty that he is Moshiach.”

In addition to this, the Rebbe explains in the Kuntreis Rabbeinu sh’b’Bavel that the Rambam rules that Moshiach “builds the Mikdash in its place”, a phrasing which allows itself to be read as “in his place”, referring to the small mikdash (מקדש מעט) in the time of golus, before the Geulah.  How “literally” to understand the Rebbe’s explanation there is strengthened by our sicha about Kibbutz Goliyos, because the Rebbe explains elsewhere (the Chassidic discourse “Gadol Yehiyeh Kavod Habayis Hazeh…”):

the Redemption, (the ingathering of the exiles,) will take place after building the Beis HaMikdash…this dimension comes about through the Third Beis HaMikdash…For the Third Beis HaMikdash, includes all the influences and qualities that will later be revealed.

Meaning that the Ingathering of the Exiles is fueled by the 3rd Beis Hamikdash, and if the Rebbe can say that it has begun then there must be a Mikdash built that is bringing it about.   Thus, we realize that 770 Eastern Parkway is not only the place where the Mikdash will be revealed in the future, but in fact it is presently — now — the Beis Hamidash in his place (the place of Moshiach before the Geuloh, in accordance with the halachic ruling of the Rambam)!  Because if the 3rd Beis Hamikdash was not present, there could not be Kibbutz Goliyos (as explained in the maamar quoted above).

22) Kuntres Purim Koton: The Level Above Mesirus Nefesh

22) Kuntres Purim Koton: The Level Above Mesirus Nefesh

This Maamor was distributed by the Rebbe himself on Purim Koton, 5752, less than two weeks before the dramatic event of 27 Adar I (“Chof Zayin Adar“), making this the “last” Kuntres (so far) that the Rebbe distributed.  Combined with the tremendous chiddushim of the maamor, it has earned a special status as a clear guide for how to proceed in our efforts to bring about the true and complete Geuloh.

The Maamor is based on a maamor that the Previous Rebbe said in Russia (“V’kibel HaYehudim”, 5689), and comes to explain the opening verse of Parshas Tetzaveh:

:וְאַתָּ֞ה תְּצַוֶּ֣ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ שֶׁ֣מֶן זַ֥יִת זָ֛ךְ כָּתִ֖ית לַמָּא֑וֹר לְהַֽעֲלֹ֥ת נֵ֖ר תָּמִֽיד

And you shall command the children of Yisroel, and they shall take to you pure olive oil, crushed for luminary, to kindle the lamps continually.

The Rebbe asks a series of questions on this verse:

  1. Why does the verse state “You (Moshe) shall command…” when Hashem is the One who commands and Moshe is only the Shliach to carry out the command?
  2. Why does it state that the Bnei Yisroel should bring the pure olive oil (for the lighting of the Menorah) to Moshe when the Menorah is lit by Aharon haCohen and not Moshe?
  3. Why does it state “crushed for the luminary”, when we would expect it to say “for the light”?
  4. Why does it state “to kindle the lights continuously” when in the very next verse it states “from evening until morning”?

In the course of answering these questions, the Rebbe will reveal some astonishing chiddushim that serve as a guidepost for our avoidah in this period.

 

THE ROLE OF MOSHE RABBEINU

The term Mitzvah (command) has a meaning of “binding and connecting” (צוותא וחיבור), which means that Hashem is instructing Moshe “You shall bind and connect the Bnei Yisroel” with the unlimited Ohr Ein Sof.  Because Moshe bestows this on Yisroel, this brings about an addition and increase on the part of Moshe himself.  This is because Moshe and Yisroel are like the head and legs of one body — that all of Yisroel are the legs of Moshe and Moshe is the head of Bnei Yisroel.  Just as the legs take the head to places that it couldn’t reach on its own, similarly Yisroel are capable of adding and increasing in the revelation of ohr by Moshe.

Moshe is referred to as “Raya Mehemna” which translates conventionally as “trusted shepherd”, but also as “shepherd of faith (emunah)”.  That just as a shepherd takes his flocks to graze, enabling them to eat (internalizing the nutrients), so, too, does Moshe Rabbeinu enable the Bnei Yisroel to “internalize” emunah.  They, in turn, add to Moshe’s level.

 

THE ROLE OF GOLUS

The expression in our verse, “crushed for the luminary” is that by being “crushed” (כתית) we reach the “luminary” (מאור).  Not just crushed, but specifically that one feels “broken and crushed” from being in golus.  At first glance, it seems that in the times of Purim the Yidden were “crushed” by the decree of Haman, and from this they reached the “luminary”, the essence of the soul (עצם הנשמה) that enabled them to have complete self-sacrifice (מסרות נפש) at that time.  But there is more than this.

The Rebbe explains that there is a level of emunah which a Yid possesses because his neshoma Above “sees” G-dliness.  This is a lofty level, but it can remain external, not affecting the person so much.  But there is a higher level of emunah which derives from the essence of the neshoma, not dependent on any level of “seeing”, which can be drawn down to affect the Yid in a deeper, pnimiyusdike way.  This is the level that Moshe Rabbeinu “feeds” to Bnei Yisroel, that this lofty level of emunah should be internalized.  How does he accomplish this?  By providing Bnei Yisroel with “G-dly knowledge” (דעת באלקות), through which the emunah becomes internalized.  And this itself is accomplished by Moshe Rabbeinu (including the Moshe Rabbeinu in every generation) who reveals the essential connection of the essence of the soul, Etzem Haneshoma.  This higher level is mainly revealed through mesirus nefesh (self-sacrifice), which was more evident in the generations following Moshe Rabbeinu himself (exemplified by Purim).

Jews have had mesirus nefesh over all the generations, but at Purim the entire nation had mesirus nefesh (during the time of Haman’s decree).  Moshe Rabbeinu himself was primarily involved with providing the Bnei Yisroel with G-dly knowledge, since his generation did not have much call for mesirus nefesh.  Mordechai’s primary effort, however, was to reveal the power of mesirus nefesh in all the members of his generation.  The Previous Rebbe, in his maamer, points out the Midrash that Mordechai was the shepherd of the generation in a revealed way.  The Rebbe derives from this that by stating this about Mordechai, the Previous Rebbe was in fact ruling on himself that he is the shepherd of the generation in a revealed way.  (And Chassidim follow this reasoning and state that the Rebbe, by mentioning this, is ruling on himself as well, that he is the shepherd of the generation in a revealed way!)

 

CRUSHED IN GOLUS

The maamor of the Previous Rebbe (upon which the Rebbe’s maamor is based) starts with the words of the Megillah “v’kibel haYehudim“, which is explained to refer to the revelation of the essence, the aspect of “luminary”, of the Yidden at Purim.  But, points out the Rebbe, that verse appears towards the end of the Megillah, after the miraculous downfall of Haman (and his decree) — Mordechai was elevated to a high rank and the situation of the Jews in Paras and Madai was at its peak!  Even the entire “house of Haman” was given to Esther.  Why would the concept of the luminary (and especially as per our opening  verse: “crushed for the luminary”) appear at that point?

Explains the Rebbe something amazing: there are two levels of being “crushed for the luminary”.  That of the time of Haman’s decree, and that of the period after Mordechai became second to the King.  The higher level is the latter, meaning that the aspect of “crushed for the luminary” that comes after the miracles, after the danger has passed, is greater!  One level of “crushed for the luminary” occurs when Yisroel are found in a state of being crushed (kosis) because of obstacles and dangers to the observance of Torah and Mitzvos.  But a higher level occurs when Yidden are in a situation of abundance  — both materially and spiritually — and nonetheless they are “crushed” just from the very fact of being in golus!  The true desire of every Yid is the revelation of G-dliness in the world, and even the unhindered ability to keep Torah and Mitzvos can be in a state where G-dliness is still concealed, and thus a Yid will feel “crushed” — this is the revelation of the essence of a Jew, revealing the highest level of the aspect of “luminary”, the essence of his neshoma.

 

TWO LEVELS OF “LUMINARY”

The practical difference between these two levels of the “luminary” of the neshoma is as follows: the first level is expressed through mesirus nefesh, which is a lofty matter, but is essentially something “additional” to the personality (כחות הגלוים) of the Yid, something which can come and go and leave no lasting impression on him.  The second level, however, is expressed by the fact that it affects and changes his personality and behavior.

From another angle, the difference between the two levels of “luminary” is in how they come about.  The first level is a direct result of the efforts the Moshe Rabbeinu of the generation to awaken and reveal the power of mesirus nefesh in the Yidden.  Regarding the second level, however, the Rebbe states: …“Crushed for the luminary” includes this that Yisroel are broken and crushed from the fact that they are in golus, that this inyan is via the avoidah of Yisroel…that the avoidah of the Nosi Hador to awaken and reveal in every single Yid the emunah which derives from the essence of the neshoma is in a way that afterwards they will perofrm their avoidah on their own (יעבדו עבודתם בכח עצמם), until they will be a “continual lamp” (נר תמיד) which is not subject to change, even externally.

 

SUMMARY

Based on the Rebbe’s explanation, the verse “v’Atoh Tetzaveh” (“And you shall command the children of Yisroel, and they shall take to you pure olive oil, crushed for luminary, to kindle the lamps continually”) can be understood to be saying:

“And you shall bind and connect the Children of Israel to the Ohr Ein Sof, and they will add ohr to you, which comes from being crushed from the existence of golus (even when everything is in abundance), to the point that the revelation of the essence of the neshoma and its effect on the individual is permanent.”

The maamor contains several wondrous chiddushim, among them:

  • There is a higher level revelation of the essence of the neshoma than mesirus nefesh; whereas mesirus nefesh involves nullifying one’s existence to the revelation of the essence of the neshoma, the higher level involves influencing and changing one’s existence in a permanent way;
  • This higher level is revealed not at a time of harsh decrees, but rather at a time of material and spiritual abundance;
  • When the Previous Rebbe brings a Midrash about Mordechai being the Moshe of his generation, he in fact ruled on himself that he, too, is the Moshe of the generation (and the understanding that follows about what it means that the Rebbe himself mentions this, etc.);
  • There is a higher level of Jewish unity and Ahavas Yisroel that derives from this level of revelation of the essence of the neshoma.  There is already the lofty Chassidic level of Achdus Yisroel and Ahavas Yisroel described in perek 32 of Tanya which comes from making “the nefesh ikkar and the body secondary”.  But here we find a higher level which derives from the essence of the soul; being that the essence of the neshoma is rooted in Hashem’s Essence, which is also in a state of unity with the “body” (כחות הגלויים), thus the unity of Yidden is in all of their matters, including those matters relating to the body.

This is taste of the intellectual revelations contained in the maamor.  Now, the work begins — our avoidah to bring the revelation of the essence of the neshoma also in our revealed dimensions, and thus bring the Geuloh also from below to Above.

Ki Sisa, 5752: Lift Up the Head of Bnei Yisroel

The sicha of parshas Ki Sisa, 5752 is the last fully-edited sicha we received from the Rebbe until now.  The Rebbe also farbrenged on Shabbos Veyakhel, the following week, but due to the stroke that sicha was not edited by the Rebbe (although the Rebbe did read and, uncharacteristically, comment on the “rashei dvorim” (overview) that was written up Motzie Shabbos).*

In this sicha the Rebbe perhaps hints at the events of 27 Adar I, and later Gimmel Tammuz by speaking of the descent for the sake of ascent and mentioning the verse “for a fleeting moment I abandoned you”:

Since this descent is merely a means to lead to a greater ascent, it is brief — to borrow a phrase “for a fleeting moment I abandoned you.” The ascent which follows it, by contrast, is eternal. This pattern will be expressed in the ultimate Redemption. It has been preceded by an awesome descent, this present exile, but it will lead to a great and eternal ascent, “a redemption never to be followed by exile.”

The sicha, as the Parsha, speaks of the sin of the Golden Calf, and although the Rebbe doesn’t mention this we know that the sin came about because Moshe Rabbeinu failed to come back down from the mountain at the time the Bnei Yisroel thought he had said.  Because they lost faith in Moshe they sinned with the Golden Calf.  As mentioned in various sources, the period when Moshiach is concealed is, among other things, an opportunity to rectify this failure–by waiting for Moshiach and not losing faith.

There is also a reference to the bodily refinement that Moshe underwent on the mountain, and that once there is no need for further refining of the world (“avodas habirurim is finished”), then Moshe can “drop the mask” which he wore and reveal his true essence.  A strong hint, perhaps, to how we relate to the Rebbe in this period of, apparent, concealment:

…this revelation [of the 2nd tablets which Moshe himself carved] reflects a fusion of materiality and spirituality which brought about an elevation within the physical person of Moshe himself causing his face to shine.  Indeed, this revelation was so great that it was necessary for Moshe to place a veil over his face. This veil was necessary, however, only when Moshe and the Jewish people were involved with worldly matters, the refinement of the world at large. When Moshe communicated G‑d’s word to the people, he would remove this veil.

Moreover, even in regard to the world at large, this concealment is not a permanent factor. Ultimately, through the Jews’ service in refining and elevating the world, they make it possible for there to be a revelation of G‑dliness within the context of our worldly environment. This process will be consummated in the Era of the Redemption when “Your Master will no longer conceal Himself and your eyes will behold your Master,” “the glory of G‑d will be revealed and all flesh will see.”

Furthermore, the verse reads “Ki Sisa es rosh bnei Yisroel”, which is translated as a command to “elevate the heads of bnei Yisroel”.  But “rosh bnei Yisroel” (as the Rebbe states elsewhere, but not in this sicha) is an acronym for “Rebbe”, meaning that the verse can be read “elevate the Rebbe…“!

The sicha also refers several times to the final verse of the Torah (“in the eyes of all of Israel”).  The simple reason is because Rashi on that verse mentions the breaking of the first tablets, which occurs in our parsha.  But, on a deeper level, we see two hints:

  1. A hint to this being the “final sicha” of the Dvar Malchus cycle, which is itself a taste of the “new Torah of Moshiach”, as discussed in this post, that the “first sicha” of the cycle begins with a discussion of Bereishis.
  2. A hint to the idea that all of the revelations of the Geulah, which the Rebbe says have already come into the world, are not in a state of completion until they are visible and revealed “in the eyes of all of Israel”.  The Torah as a whole, and this “Torah of Moshiach” of Dvar Malchus, concludes when the Jewish people, with their own effort, bring about that the Geulah, which is already here, becomes revealed to their eyes.  In other words: “all that remains is to open up the eyes”.

* Interesting to note that there were two times the Rebbe was concealed from Chassidim.  The first occurred in 5738 due to the heart attack, the second on 27 Adar I, 5752 due to a stroke.  A fourteen year difference (gematria “Chabad”), and (in simple, physical terms as they appear to us) a progression from a “heart-related” issue (cardiac arrest) to a “brain-related” issue (stroke).

Tetzave 5752: The Day the Essence is Revealed

Tetzave 5752: The Day the Essence is Revealed

There are two edited Sichos for Parshas Tetzave 5752.  The first combines several talks given on the days leading up to (and including) Shabbos, whereas the second was said entirely on Shabbos.  They are very different in subject and style, but bound together by a common theme: the Essence of the soul and it’s connection to Hashem’s Essence.

The first Sicha opens with the famous fact that Moshe Rabbeinu’s name does not appear even once in our parsha.  Among the answers given by commentators are that a) it always falls it close to 7 Adar, the day Moshe passed away; and, b) it is in some way a fulfillment of Moshe’s bold statement to Hashem “erase me from Your book” (מחני נא מספרך) if He will not forgive Bnei Yisroel.  More on this later.

The Rebbe then addresses 7 Adar, which is not only the day Moshe passed away; it is also his birthday.  As the Sages tell us: when Haman’s lottery fell out in Adar he was very happy, since this was the month when the Rebbe of the Jews passed away, but he didn’t know that on 7 Adar he [Moshe] died, and on 7 Adar he was born — and the day of his birth is sufficient to rectify the day of his death (כדאי הלידה שתכפר על המיתה).  The Rebbe questions, then, using the proximity of Moshe’s passing as a reason for his name not appearing in our parsha: why should the parsha near 7 Adar contain a hint to Moshe’s passing? Why not his birth (which rectifies his death)?  The other reason (“erase me from Your book”) is also questioned: it is recorded in another parsha altogether!  But, reasons the Rebbe, since they are both given as a reason for the same event, they must be connected. And the Rebbe patiently reveals to us how.

The birth of Moshe in the month of Adar causes the cancellation of Haman’s decree.  Haman was happy with this month for an additional reason: every other month has a special merit (Nissan has Pesach, for example) or a powerful mazal.  But Adar has neither merit not mazal (אדר אין לו זכות ואין לו מזל).  The Rebbe explains that Adar doesn’t have merit or mazal because it doesn’t need them — on Moshe’s birthday his mazal is powerful (מזלו גובר), and since “Moshe is Yisroel and Yisroel is Moshe” the mazal of all of Yisroel is powerful in this month.

What is the mazal of Yisroel? “Mazal” refers to the root of the neshoma Above.  So when we learn that “there is no mazal for Yisroel” (unlike the other nations who have a particular astrological force as their mazal), it means that the Jewish people is higher than these constellations.  The word “ein” אין means “is not” but can also be read as “ayin” — nothingness, a level above the grasp of human intellect.  The Mazal of Yisroel is “ayin”, above the mazalos of the Nations, above the grasp of the intellect, the level of “Above name” (the level where Hashem does not need a name, since nothing else exists there).

The birth of Moshe Rabbeinu (7 Adar) hints at the revelation of the essence of the neshoma, which takes place at birth (when the child does not yet have a name).  It is the revelation of the essence of his existence, and also of Yisroel, which reaches above Hashem’s name (or need for a name): where they are one with His essence (עצמותו יתברך).

So the absence of Moshe’s name in our parsha is connected with it’s proximity to his birth — meaning the revelation of the Essence of his being which is higher than and beyond his need for a name (thus, it doesn’t appear).

And what about the other reason given for Moshe’s name not appearing: his bold declaration of “erase me from Your book”?  Explains the Rebbe, this, too, is connected with the same nekuda.  The day Moshe was born refers to the revelation of his essence (התגלות העצם), which is connected with the essence of Yisroel, and it is the reason for his mesirus nefesh (“erase my name…”) on behalf of the Yidden.  Thus, his birth on 7 Adar — the revelation of his essence and the essence of Yisroel — is what brought him to say “erase my name…”, and thus it is the most fitting time for its symbolic fulfillment: his name not appearing in the parsha.  When? Close to the same revelation of the essence that caused it!

All of this connects to the second Sicha through the same nekudah: the essence of the soul.  The Rebbe examines the Ketores, the 11 spices that were burnt on the golden altar inside the Beis haMikdosh.  The offering of the Ketores is “the main intent of the Mishkan”, and until this avoidah was performed the Shechina did not dwell in the Mishkan.

“Ketores” is from the root meaning “connection”, which the Rebbe explains as the connection of the essence of the soul (עצם הנשמה) with Hashem.

When are the Ketores offered? According to the Rambam, the Seder is that after the sprinkling of the blood of the Tamid sacrifice: 5 of the 7 lamps of the menorah are kindled*, then the Ketores is offered, then the last 2 lamps of the menorah are lit.  The lighting of the lamps of the menorah, explains the Rebbe, refers to neshomos Yisroel in keeping Torah and Mitzvos.

We are left with a question: why is there a need for a “break” in the middle of kindlng the lamps of the Menorah for the offering of Ketores?  Why is there a break for the connection of the essence of the soul (Ketores) in the midst of lighting up Jewish souls through Torah and Mitzvos?  Says the Rebbe: this “break” is to accomplish the main purpose of the Mishkan, which is the indwelling of the Shechina in the world, reflecting complete hiskashrus with Hashem (Ketores) being revealed in the world (the lamps, Torah and Mitzvos).

We might also find a hint here for the situation that would begin two weeks later in Adar 5752, continuing through Gimmel Tammuz, and into our present moment: the “break” that occurs in the middle of lighting up the world (the lamps), at which time the Kohen “disappears” from sight to perform the avoidah of “hiskashrus of the Essence” (ketores, which is performed alone — no one is allowed to see him [“there will not be any man in the Tent of Meeting”]).  Then, while the Kohen who is bringing the Ketores is still out of sight, the last two lamps are kindled (assisted, the Rebbe says, by the avoidah of the Ketores). This could be hinting at our avodah of “hiskashrus of the essence of the neshoma” during the time the Rebbe is out of sight, and our job to imbue this into our lighting up the world through Torah and Mitzvos. And then, “after the completion of kindling the lamps the two of them go out together…that through the lamps will also be drawn down and revealed the level of hiskashrus and connection which occurs via the Ketores.”

(For greater elaboration on the reason for Moshiach bring concealed, see the kuntres “Between Golus and Geuloh”)

* The Rambam holds that הטבת הנרות includes lighting them, see footnote 11 in the Sicha.